Brief presentations of information on aspects of PTSD:

  • Warning Signs
    Warning signs of trauma-related stress
    , from Los Angeles County Department of Mental Health.

  • Warning Signs from APA
    Warning signs of trauma-related stress, from the American Psychological Assn.
  • Normalizing Emotions
    You are not alone! description of normal emotions following a disaster, from the American Red Cross.

The Peniston Protocol
PTSD Treatment

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Warning Signs of Trauma-Related Stress by the American Psychological Association

Individuals who have experienced a traumatic event oftentimes suffer psychological stress related to the incident.

In most instances, these are normal reactions to abnormal situations.

Individuals who feel they are unable to regain control of their lives, or who experience the following symptoms for more than a month, should consider seeking outside professional mental health assistance.

The American Red Cross is now working with mental health professionals trained in trauma. For information or a referral, contact the local American Red Cross chapter or the American Psychological Association at 202/336-5800.

  • Recurring thoughts or nightmares about the event.
  • Having trouble sleeping or changes in appetite.
  • Experiencing anxiety and fear, especially when exposed to events or situations reminiscent of the trauma.
  • Being on edge, being easily startled or becoming overly alert.
  • Feeling depressed, sad and having low energy.
  • Experiencing memory problems including difficulty in remembering aspects of the trauma.
  • Feeling "scattered" and unable to focus on work or daily activities.
  • Having difficulty making decisions.
  • Feeling irritable, easily agitated, or angry and resentful.
  • Feeling emotionally "numb," withdrawn, disconnected or different from others.
  • Spontaneously crying, feeling a sense of despair and hopelessness.
  • Feeling extremely protective of, or fearful for, the safety of loved ones.
  • Not being able to face certain aspects of the trauma, and avoiding activities, places, or even people that remind you of the event.

APA gratefully acknowledges Richard Tanenbaurn, Ph. D, Deborah DeWolfe PhD., and Anne Marie Albano, Ph.D., for their contributions to this fact sheet.

Much of this material was compiled by David Baldwin's Trauma Information Pages Eugene, Oregon USA (541) 686 2598


















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The information on this Web site is presented for educational purposes only. It is not a substitute for informed medical advice or training. Do not use this information to diagnose or treat a mental health problem without consulting a qualified health or mental health care provider.
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